Understanding Gun Safe Security Ratings: A Comprehensive Guide

Selecting the right gun safe is vital for firearm security and safety. This guide dives into the crucial aspects of gun safe security ratings, examining key criteria such as steel thickness, locking mechanisms, and certifications from organizations like UL (Underwriters Laboratories). We also discuss the importance of DOJ standards, particularly for owners in states with specific requirements. This essential information will help both new and experienced firearm owners make an informed choice in gun safe selection, ensuring compliance with legal standards and personal security needs.

Gun Safe Security Ratings

Key Insights

  • Key criteria for gun safe security ratings include steel thickness, third-party certifications (e.g., UL), door type, locking mechanism, locking bars, and lock guard type.
  • UL ratings, such as RSC (Residential Security Container) and Class 350 Fire Ratings, provide important benchmarks for a gun safe’s ability to protect against unauthorized access and fire.
  • Insurance ratings and UL burglary-resistant safe ratings offer a clear understanding of a safe’s level of protection against break-in attempts.
  • Fire ratings, determined by independent testing organizations like UL, indicate a safe’s ability to maintain a specific internal temperature during a fire, with UL Class 350 being the most relevant for gun safes.
  • DOJ (Department of Justice) certified gun safe standards ensure a high level of security and are particularly important for owners in states with specific requirements, such as California.

The Criteria for Gun Safe Security Ratings

When selecting a gun safe, understanding the security ratings criteria is vital. These ratings, determined by various factors, ensure that the safe provides adequate protection against unauthorized access and environmental threats. Here’s a breakdown of the key criteria:

Steel Thickness

The thickness of the steel used in a gun safe is a primary determinant of its security level. Thicker steel offers more resistance to physical attacks. Steel gauge is inversely related to its thickness: lower gauge numbers indicate thicker steel. For example, 7-gauge steel is thicker than 10-gauge steel. The strength and security offered by thicker steel are significantly higher. For instance, 12-gauge steel is nearly twice as strong as 14-gauge steel.

Third-party Certification

Third-party certification, particularly by Underwriters Laboratories (UL), is a critical factor. UL is an independent organization that assesses the effectiveness of various products, including safes. For a safe to be UL listed, both the safe body and the lock must meet UL’s stringent requirements.

Door Type

The construction of the safe’s door is crucial for security. Doors cut from a single steel piece provide increased strength and tight fitting against the safe body. Higher-end safes may feature doors combining a steel plate with thick composite material, offering enhanced resistance to burglary attempts and fire.

Locking Mechanism

The locking mechanism inside the door is a vital component. It should be robust and reliable, retracting and re-engaging locking bars effectively. Superior locking mechanisms increase the difficulty for burglars to break into the safe.

Locking Bars

The locking bars, especially in high-quality safes, are designed to prevent prying. They should be solid, heavy-duty steel with no weak points. The thickness of these bars contributes to the overall security rating of the safe. Thicker bars mean higher security.

Lock Guard Type

The lock guard type involves additional protection for the locking mechanism, typically a hardened steel plate or equivalent material. Advanced safes may include features like a ball-bearing hard plate that can snap drill bits, offering an extra layer of security against drilling attempts.

Each of these factors contributes to the overall security rating of a gun safe. When choosing a safe, it’s essential to consider these criteria in relation to your specific security needs and the potential threats you aim to guard against. This comprehensive approach ensures that your firearms and valuables are stored securely, providing peace of mind and adhering to any legal requirements for firearm storage.

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Understanding Specific UL Ratings for Gun Safes

UL (Underwriters Laboratories) ratings play a pivotal role in determining the security level of gun safes. These ratings are used as a benchmark to measure how well a safe can protect its contents from various types of break-in attempts.

UL RSC Certification

UL-listed RSC (Residential Security Container), also known as “8M10”, is a common certification for gun safes.

RSC-rated safes are required to withstand access attempts for five minutes using limited tools like a short pry bar and a light hammer.

However, it’s important to note that RSC-rated safes may not provide adequate protection against modern burglary methods, which often involve more sophisticated tools. Safes with RSC certification are often likened to basic gun cabinets in terms of security, being more about perceived security rather than actual robust protection against forced entry.

UL Class 350 Fire Ratings

Fire ratings on gun safes can be somewhat ambiguous and are often determined by the manufacturers without independent oversight. UL Laboratories provides fireproof certifications through three standard class ratings: UL Class 350-1, UL Class 350-2, and UL Class 350-3. A gun safe with a UL Class 350 certification has been tested and verified for fire resistance. Without this certification, a safe cannot be considered truly fireproof.

The actual effectiveness of a gun safe in protecting its contents during a fire may depend more on the specifics of the fire than the fire rating of the safe itself. Moreover, some RSC-rated containers are marketed as fire-rated gun safes, but they do not meet the minimum standards to be officially called a safe, and their fire ratings are not independently verified.

When choosing a gun safe, it’s crucial to understand these UL ratings and their implications. RSC certification, while common, may not provide the level of security needed against determined thieves with modern tools. Similarly, fire ratings should be approached with an understanding of their limitations and the importance of looking for UL Class 350 certification for genuine fireproof assurance. This knowledge will guide you in selecting a safe that truly meets your security needs.

Insurance and Burglary-Resistant Safe Ratings

When it comes to gun safes, there are two primary types of ratings to consider: insurance ratings and burglary-resistant safe ratings. Understanding these ratings is key to choosing a safe that meets your security needs.

Insurance Ratings

Insurance ratings, issued by insurance agencies, are primarily based on the construction of the safe:

  • B Rating: Indicates a safe with a body less than ½ inch thick and a door less than 1 inch thick. These safes are not tested by Underwriters Laboratories (UL).
  • C Rating: A safe with at least ½ inch thick body and a door at least 1 inch thick.
  • E Rating: Indicates walls at least 1 inch thick and a door of at least 1 ½ inches thick.
  • ER Rating: Equivalent to UL’s TL-15 rating, indicating solid steel construction and a resistance to 15 minutes of break-in attempts.
  • F Rating: Equivalent to UL’s TL-30 rating, tested for break-in resistance for 30 minutes.
  • G&A Rating: Equivalent to UL’s TL-30×6 rating, tested on all six sides for 30 minutes against various break-in methods.

UL Ratings for Burglary Resistance

UL ratings are based on performance testing and are a trusted standard in the industry:

  • Residential Security Container (RSC) Level 1: Withstands five minutes of break-in attempts by a single person using basic tools.
  • RSC Level 2: Can withstand an attack by two people using more tools for 10 minutes.
  • RSC Level 3: Resists three people using even more tools for 10 minutes.
  • TL-15: Typically for commercial-grade safes, this rating means the safe can withstand 15 minutes of break-in attempts on the door or face of the safe.
  • TL-30: Tested for 30 minutes of break-in resistance.
  • TL-30×6: Tested on all sides, including the floor, for 30 minutes, against more advanced break-in methods.

These ratings offer a clear understanding of how well a gun safe can protect against unauthorized access and burglary attempts. It’s important to choose a safe with a rating that matches the level of security you need, considering factors like the value of the items stored and the potential risk of burglary in your area.

Fire Ratings for Gun Safes

Fire ratings in gun safes are crucial in determining how well the safe can protect its contents during a fire. These ratings are typically provided by independent testing organizations, such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL), and they indicate the safe’s ability to maintain a certain internal temperature during a fire.

Types of Fire Insulation in Safes

  • Fireboard Layering: This is a common form of insulation in many safes, similar to drywall. Fireboard is generally layered, with the thickness ranging from 1/4 to 5/8 of an inch. The fireboard has moisture, which is released when heated, helping to keep the interior of the safe cooler for a longer duration during a fire. The effectiveness of this insulation increases with the number of layers.
  • Composite Material Insulation: Some higher-end safes use a composite material, similar to a type of concrete, sandwiched between two layers of steel. This material acts as a superior insulator, preventing heat from penetrating the safe’s interior.
  • K-wool Insulation: A few manufacturers use K-wool, a type of insulating material, in their safes. K-wool is notable for its ability to insulate pipes due to its easy formability around curved surfaces. However, there is a caveat with K-wool: no manufacturer using K-wool in safes has achieved a third-party fire rating at any level.

Understanding UL Class Fire Ratings

  • UL Class 125: This rating means the interior of the safe will not exceed a temperature of 125°F. It was traditionally used for protecting flexible computer disks.
  • UL Class 150: A UL Class 150 rating indicates that the safe’s interior temperature will stay below 150°F. This class is suitable for materials like compact disks.
  • UL Class 350: This is the most relevant class for gun safes. UL Class 350 rated safes can keep their internal temperature below 350°F, which is crucial for protecting paper documents, as paper starts to scorch at approximately 410°F.

Duration and Testing Methodology

The duration mentioned alongside the UL Class (e.g., 1 hour, 2 hours) indicates how long the safe can maintain the specified internal temperature during a fire.

Independent testing typically involves placing the safe in a furnace and gradually increasing the temperature to a certain point (e.g., 1,200°F), while monitoring the internal temperature. If the internal temperature exceeds the specified limit (e.g., 350°F for UL Class 350), the test concludes.

Factory-certified tests are conducted by the safe manufacturers themselves and might lack the rigor and standardization of independent testing. The accuracy of these tests can vary, so they should be approached with caution.

Fire Rating and Humidity Control

UL tests also evaluate the internal humidity level of safes during fire testing. This is a significant factor since excessive humidity can lead to rusting and other forms of damage to firearms and valuables.

In conclusion, when evaluating a gun safe’s fire rating, it is essential to consider the type of insulation, the credibility of the testing methodology, the specific UL Class rating, and the internal humidity control mechanisms. This comprehensive approach ensures the selection of a safe that provides adequate protection for its contents in the event of a fire.

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DOJ Certified Gun Safe Standards

The Department of Justice (DOJ) in California sets specific standards for gun safes, ensuring they provide a high level of security for firearm storage. These standards are crucial for gun owners who need to comply with state regulations or seek robust protection for their firearms. Here are the key criteria for a DOJ certified gun safe:

Containment and Secure Storage

The safe must be capable of fully containing firearms and providing secure storage.

Locking System

Safes should have a mechanical or electronic combination lock with at least 10,000 possible combinations, consisting of a minimum of three numbers, letters, or symbols. The lock must be protected by a case-hardened, drill-resistant steel plate or material of equivalent strength.


The safe must include at least three steel locking bolts, each at least 1/2-inch thick. These bolts should intrude from the door into the body of the safe or vice versa and be operated by a separate handle, secured by the lock.


The exterior walls should be constructed of a minimum 12-gauge thick steel for single-walled safes, or the combined thickness of the walls should be at least 0.100 inches for double-walled safes. Doors must be made of at least one layer of 7-gauge steel plate reinforced construction or two layers of a minimum of 12-gauge steel compound construction.

Door Hinges

Safes must have protected door hinges to prevent removal. Protective features can include internal hinges, interlocking door designs, dead bars, jeweler’s lugs, and active or inactive locking bolts.


Additionally, a gun safe can meet DOJ standards if it fully contains firearms, provides secure storage, and is certified/listed as meeting Underwriters Laboratories Residential Security Container rating standards by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL)​​.

These standards not only provide a guideline for compliance with state laws but also offer gun owners assurance about the security level of the safes they are considering for their firearms. When selecting a gun safe, especially in California, it is important to ensure that it meets these DOJ criteria to ensure both legal compliance and optimal security.

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Choosing the Right Gun Safe Based on Security Ratings

Selecting the ideal gun safe requires careful consideration of various factors, including security ratings and personal requirements. Here are some guidelines to help you choose the right gun safe:

Assess Your Needs

Evaluate your firearm collection, considering that for small handguns, a compact bedside gun safe is ideal, while larger safes are required for long guns. This will help you determine the size and type of safe needed based on the types and number of firearms you own, as well as any additional valuables you wish to secure.

Consider Security Ratings

Review the gun safe’s security ratings, such as UL ratings for burglary and fire protection, and DOJ certifications if applicable. These ratings provide an indication of the safe’s ability to protect against theft and fire.

Evaluate Locking Mechanisms

Look for safes with robust locking systems, such as electronic or biometric gun safes, which offer higher security levels. Ensure the lock meets or exceeds industry standards.

Check Material and Construction

The construction of the safe, including the thickness of the steel and the quality of the locking mechanism, plays a crucial role in its overall security.

Fire Protection

If protecting contents from fire is a priority, consider the fire rating of the safe. A higher fire rating means better protection but also often results in a higher cost.

Size and Placement

Think about where you will place the safe in your home. This can affect the size and type of safe you can accommodate.

Budget Considerations

Balance your security needs with your budget. Higher security ratings and advanced features usually increase the cost.

Legal Compliance

Ensure that the safe meets any specific legal requirements for firearm storage in your area, especially if there are state-specific regulations.

Read Reviews and Seek Recommendations

Look for reviews and ask for recommendations from other gun owners or professionals in the field.

By considering these factors, you can make an informed decision that balances security, compliance, and budget, ensuring that your firearms and valuables are stored safely and securely.

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In this guide, we’ve explored the various aspects of gun safe security ratings, including the criteria for ratings, specific UL ratings, and the significance of DOJ certification. We’ve also discussed the importance of fire ratings and provided guidelines for choosing the right gun safe.

It’s clear that understanding these ratings and standards is essential for any firearm owner. They not only ensure compliance with legal requirements but also provide the peace of mind that comes from knowing your firearms and valuables are securely stored. When selecting a gun safe, it’s crucial to consider all these factors to make an informed decision that aligns with your security needs and personal circumstances.

Remember, the right gun safe is an investment in safety and security. Take the time to research, understand the ratings, and choose a safe that offers the best protection for your specific needs.


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